war dept usa number


  1. Troop Leading Steps
    1. Begin planning.
      1. Plan the use of available time.
      2. Begin the estimate of the situation.
        1. Analyze terrain from map, sketch, or
          aerial photograph for—
          1. Observation and fields of fire.
          2. Cover and concealment.
          3. Obstacles.
          4. Critical terrain features.
          5. Avenues of approach.
        2. Analyze enemy strength, locations, dispositions, and capabilities.
      3. Make preliminary plan.
    2. Arrange for—
      1. Movement of unit (where, when, how).
      2. Reconnaissance (select route, schedule, persons to take along, use of subordinates).
      3. Issue of order (notify team leaders of time and place).
      4. Coordination (adjacent and supporting units).
    3. Make reconnaissance (continue estimate, complete terrain analysis; it necessary change preliminary plan).
    4. Complete plan (receive recommendations, change preliminary plan as needed, prepare order).
    5. Issue order (include terrain orientation).
    6. Supervise.
  2. Estimate of the Situation
    1. Mission.
    2. Situation and courses of action.
      1. Weather, terrain, comparison of enemy and friendly situation.
      2. Enemy capabilities.
      3. Own courses of action.
    3. Analysis of opposing courses of action. (Analyze effect of each enemy capability on each of own courses of action).
    4. Comparison of own courses of action. (Summarize advantages and disadvantages of own courses of action.)
    5. Decision (who, what, when, where, how and why).
  3. Patrolling
    1. Patrol planning steps.
      1. Plan use of time.
      2. Study situation.
      3. Make map study.
      4. Coordinate (continuous throughout).
      5. Select men, weapons and equipment.
      6. Issue warning order.
      7. Make reconnaissance.
      8. Complete detailed plans.
      9. Issue patrol leaders orders.
      10. Inspect and rehearse.
    2. Patrol report.
      1. Size and composition of patrol.
      2. Task (mission).
      3. Time of departure.
      4. Time of return.
      5. Routes (out and back).
      6. Terrain.
      7. Enemy.
      8. Any map corrections.
      9. Miscellaneous information.
      10. Results of encounters with enemy.
      11. Condition of patrol.
      12. Conclusions and recommendations.
  4. Patrol Warning Order
    The patrol warning order should consist of the following minimum items of information:
    1. A brief statement of the enemy and friendly situation.
    2. Mission of the patrol.
    3. General instructions.
      1. General and special organization.
      2. Uniform and equipment common to all, to include identification and camouflage measures.
      3. Weapons, ammunition and equipment each member will carry.
      4. Who will accompany patrol leader on reconnaissance and who will supervise patrol members' preparation during patrol leader's absence.
      5. Instructions for obtaining rations, water, weapons, ammunition and equipment.
      6. The chain of command.
      7. A time schedule for the patrol's guidance. At a minimum, include meal times and the time, place and uniform for receiving the patrol leader's order.
  5. Patrol Leader's Order
    Order contains five paragraphs:
    1. Situation.
      1. Enemy forces (weather, terrain, identification, location, activity, strength).
      2. Friendly forces (mission of next higher unit, location and planned actions of units on right and left, fire support available for patrol, mission and routes of other patrols).
      3. Attachments and detachments.
    2. Mission (what the patrol is going to accomplish).
    3. Execution (subparagraph for each subordinate unit).
      1. Time of departure and return.
      2. Formation and order of movement.
      3. Route and alternate route of return.
      4. Departure from, and reentry of, friendly areas.
      5. Rallying points and actions.
      6. Actions on enemy contact.
      7. Actions at danger areas.
      8. Actions at objective.
      9. Rehearsals and inspections.
      10. Debriefing.
    4. Administration and logistics.
      1. Rations.
      2. Arms and ammunition.
      3. Uniform and equipment (state which members will carry and use).
      4. Method of handling wounded and prisoners.
    5. Command and signal.
      1. Signal.
        1. Signals to be used within the patrol.
        2. Communication with higher headquarters, radio call-signs, primary and alternate frequencies, times to report and special code to be used.
        3. Challenge and password.
      2. Command.
        1. Chain of command.
        2. Location of patrol leader and assistant patrol leader.
  6. Planning and Preparation
    1. Assign every member of patrol an area or responsibility. Do not forget to appoint a man to observe overhead and to the rear.
    2. Have more than one man designated as a pacer, and use the average pace obtained from both.
    3. Use the point man as a point and not as a compass man; he is primarily concerned with security. Have the second or third man responsible for navigation. On large patrols more than one man may be used as the point.
    4. On small patrols the second in command should send the count forward after each extended halt or passage of an obstacle. On large patrols the chain of command may be used to account for men.
    5. In giving the patrol leader's order, visual aids are of great value, i.e., a blanket board, black board, sand table, or even just a sketch using a stick and a cleared piece of ground may be used.
    6. Make a good map reconnaissance; know your route from memory prior to departure.
    7. Consider the use of seemingly impassable terrain in planning your route as you will be less likely to encounter the enemy.
    8. Avoid all human habitations and manmade objects.
    9. In mountainous terrain plan to utilize ridge lines for movement if the situation permits. Stay off the skyline.
    10. In planning a route, do not forget to use offsets when applicable. An offset is planned magnetic deviation to the right or left of the straight-line azimuth to an objective. It is used to verity your exact location (either to the right or left) in relation to the objective.
    11. In issuing the patrol leader's order, give specific action to be taken at each type danger area as determined by the patrol leader.
    12. When enemy wire is encountered, cut only when necessary. Make a proper reconnaissance first. To cut, wrap wire with cloth and apply even pressure on the cutters.
    13. There are several acceptable methods of crossing roads. Whatever the method used, the basic principles of reconnaissance and security apply. Some of the accepted methods are:
      1. Patrol form a skirmish line and advance across the road using "a fast walk."
      2. Entire patrol forms a file, each man following the man's footstep in front to minimize detection of footprints.
      3. Men cross the road a few at a time until patrol is across.
        Crossing roads in enemy territory is merely a matter of common sense. Each situation may dictate a different method. You will not violate the established procedures providing you apply the proper reconnaissance prior to crossing the road; establish adequate security and move silently and quickly to avoid detection. A main point of consideration in any road crossing is control of your unit. Avoid crossing at a road junction.
    14. Crossing streams is similar to crossing roads; reconnaissance and security are both necessary.
    15. Select checkpoints from map reconnaissance prior to departure and confirm their location on the ground as rally points as patrol passes them.
    16. When necessary to infiltrate enemy lines, a tentative rendezvous point should be preselected behind enemy lines. An alternate point should also be selected in event the first point is occupied by the enemy.
    17. When preparing equipment list, consider fragmentation, white phosphorous, concussion, smoke, and thermite grenades.
    18. Light automatic weapons are good for night patrols. Avoid taking several different types of weapons on patrol, as it makes ammunition redistribution difficult.
    19. Test fire all weapons prior to departing on patrol to insure their proper functioning.
    20. A length of rope, which can be easily carried secured around waist, has many uses on patrol: securing prisoners, aiding or descending obstacles, crossing rivers, etc.
    21. Carry gloves to protect hands from briars and scratches.
    22. Blackjacks can be made out of sand, soap or stone-filled socks.
    23. A garrote can be used for killing a sentry or capturing a prisoner. Use an insulated wire if you want to capture a prisoner.
    24. Keep the cutting edge of the entrenching tool extremely sharp. It is a good silent weapon and can be used in lieu of a machete.
    25. A candle or can of sterno placed under a poncho is a great aid in keeping warm, particularly if used in conjunction with a deep slit trench. Avoid inhalation of fumes from sterno as they can be dangerous.
    26. Two pieces of luminous tape, each about the size of a lieutenant's bar, worn on the back of the cap, greatly aid in control and movement on dark nights. If close to enemy, turn ear flaps up to conceal luminous tape from the enemy.
    27. Both day and night carry and use binoculars whenever practical.
    28. Take two or more ponchos on patrol: they can be used as litters, for constructing rafts, to conceal lights, and as shelters.
    29. Carry extra pair of dry socks on person at all times.
    30. Carry a sharp knife.
    31. Carry two of each of the small items of equipment such as fuze crimpers and wire cutters.
    32. Additional batteries for both flashlight and radio should be carried on long patrols.
    33. Consider use of scout dogs if they are available for use.
    34. Suspenders should in most cases be worn when wearing the pistol belt.
    35. Always carry cleaning equipment for individual weapons on all patrols regardless of the length, type or nature of the mission. Check to see that the oiler is full. Patches carried in the stocks of the rifle will prevent cleaning equipment from rattling.
    36. Tape rifle sling to weapon to prevent noise and snagging. Slings may be used as "ropes" to secure splints and as tourniquets. Insure that tape on weapon does not hinder the operation of the piece.
    37. Soot, paste, and other types of camouflage material should be used freely. Attention should be given to all exposed skin including the back of the neck, behind the ears, and the backs of the hands.
    38. A clear acetate sheet placed over luminous tape can be used to make rough strip maps at night. The map will glow in the dark making the use of lights unnecessary. Use a grease pencil so that any information can be easily erased.
    39. Light machinegun ammunition can be carried conveniently in a pack suspended from the chest. If necessary, it can be fed into the gun from this pack.
    40. If necessary to leave a wounded man to be picked up later, leave another man with him, it possible. Walking wounded should return on their own to friendly lines, if possible. When in close enemy contact remove wounded from immediate danger areas before treating.
    41. All signals to be used on patrol should be prearranged and known by all members. Keep signals simple and to a minimum.
    42. Sound signals, such as taps in the rifle butt, are practical when used in small patrols but are impractical when used in large patrols.
    43. Over short distances, such as the width of a road, the compass or luminous tape can be used for signaling at night.
    44. When possible arrange to have a light aircraft reconnoiter ahead of your patrol to keep you informed of any enemy activity or ambushes along your route.
    45. When a reconnaissance is to be made, the patrol leader or designated representative should be accompanied by at least one other responsible man.
    46. Prior to arrival at the command post or outpost through which you plan to pass, prepare a list of coordinating questions.
    47. Coordinate fully with FFL personnel through whose position you are departing.
    48. Prior to departing on patrol, hold a rehearsal on terrain similar to that on which you will later be operating. Cover all details.
    49. Patrol leader should insure that all equipment is checked before departing. Have a communication check before departing. A final inspection should be held early enough to correct any discrepancies but late enough to avoid equipment being misplaced prior to departure.
    50. Fold and prepare maps before leaving to facilitate map checks while en route. Avoid having fold indicate exact route and area of operations.
    51. Preset compasses prior to departure if personnel are not proficient at setting the compass in the dark.
    52. Check to see the grenades carried can be reached easily.
    53. If possible remain in darkness until all patrol members become accustomed to the darkness.
    54. Hold your security halt beyond the final protective fire of the front line unit.
  7. Execution
    1. When moving at night, take advantage of any noises, such as wind, vehicles, planes, shelling, battle sounds, and sounds caused by insects.
    2. Avoid roads and trials for movement unless their use is deemed absolutely necessary. Insure that security is adequate prior to using roads and trails.
    3. Whenever possible use terrain features on which to guide.
    4. Use stars to aid in navigation. When doing so, however, confirm your location periodically with a compass.
    5. The night method of using the compass can be used during daytime to facilitate movement.
    6. When in close proximity to the enemy main battle position, avoid lateral movement across its front.
    7. Consider use of supporting weapons to aid in navigation. Use artillery, mortar, .50 cal, or recoilless marking rounds.
    8. Use the flash-bang method to determine your distance from the impact area when using marking rounds in order to fix your location in relation to the objective.
    9. When men have difficulty staying awake on security and at halts, minimize the number of halts and make the men assume a kneeling rather than prone position.
    10. Weapons should normally be carried at a ready position.
    11. Do not parallel FFL while probing for the reentry point.
    12. Never throw trash on ground while on patrol. Bury and camouflage it to prevent detection by the enemy.
    13. During halts at night in terrain in which control is difficult, the direction in which each patrol member is to face to provide security must be SOP.
    14. While on patrol, there should be no smoking. The odor of tobacco smoke or lighting of a cigarette can easily betray the presence of a patrol to the enemy.
    15. Do not jeopardize security by letting ear flaps and hoods interfere with hearing ability of the patrol.
    16. When on patrol pass simple instructions; give time for dissemination; then execute.
    17. Keep talking to a minimum. Use arm and hand signals to the maximum.
    18. When reconnoitering enemy positions, keep covering force within supporting distance of reconnaissance element.
    19. Do not mark maps with friendly information. Maps may be marked with enemy information.
    20. When possible while on long patrols, allow men to sleep; however, maintain proper security.
    21. Regarding friendly agents such as partisans, never take the entire patrol to make contact with them. Have one man make the contact and cover him.
    22. Know the method of finding the North Star; and know how to use the sun's shadow to find North.
    23. The best nights for patrols are dark, rainy, and windy nights.
    24. Do not let the importance of personnel comfort endanger the patrol and the accomplishment of the mission.
    25. On long-range patrols, take turns carrying the heavy equipment so as not to unduly tire the patrol members.


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