War Department Field Manual
10 March 1944
1. APPLICATION. This manual is applicable specifically to field maneuvers '(two-sided). It may be used in field exercises (one-sided), command post exercises, and various other forms of applicatory training so far as appropriate.
It pertains only to ground umpiring. Air umpiring is covered in FM 105-6.
2. CHARACTER OF MANEUVERS. Maneuvers should be-
a. Free. Each force should act as it chooses, subject only to field orders received, to terrain restrictions, and actions by the opposing force. Prohibited areas and other terrain restrictions should be published to both forces alike before a maneuver, preferably by overprinted map or overlay. A particular tract may be used either actually or not at all; it may not be used by assumption or constructively.
b. Continuous. An armistice or rest period during a maneuver-for example, at night-lessens realism and training value and will not be permitted.
c. Brief. While a maneuver should continue until the tactical action is developed fully, it will be found, usually, that the useful and profitable period of maneuvers of a division or smaller unit is limited to about 48 hours. Maneuvers of larger forces may require twice that period or even more.
3. DIRECTOR. The director plans and conducts the maneuver. Although he participates in the operations of neither of the opposing forces, he acts as the superior commander of both forces for the purpose of presenting the situation, initiating and terminating the maneuver, and giving such instructions as may be necessary. He conducts the critique.
4. NEED OF UMPIRING. Actual combat involves movement, fire, and physical contact of the opposing forces (shock action). Movement can and should be real, approaching service conditions closely. Fire must be simulated, or with blank ammunition, and its effect determined and indicated by umpires. Hand-to-hand combat also cannot be real, and opposing troops are stopped short of physical contact. Thus, except for movement, it is necessary that tactical progress be determined and indicated by umpires, based on the strength, position, and fire power of the opposing units involved.
5. STATUS OF UMPIRES. Although umpires are assigned to units of the opposing forces, they are in no sense a part of such units. The entire group of umpires is superimposed on the maneuver as a whole. Umpires are neutral in attitude and actions. Their effort is to promote realism by every proper procedure. Their decisions express and interpret tactical facts.
6. RELATIONS BETWEEN TROOPS AND UMPIRES.
a. Troops must understand and conform to procedure established for maneuvers, and accept decisions by umpires without argument. However, troops may call on umpires for decisions when needed and for clarification of decisions already made.
b. Umpires must avoid interfering with troops, and must not reveal the position of troops by exposing themselves unnecessarily. In general, unit umpires should conform to restrictions imposed on troops of the unit to which they are assigned.
7. ORGANIZATION OF UMPIRES, a. Umpires are directly under the director.
For large maneuvers, assistant directors are necessary for the administration,
assignment, and supervision of umpires, and their transportation and
b. Umpires are of three classes:
(1) Unit umpires, assigned to troop units with duties as described in paragraphs 41-48.
(2) Fire umpires, who mark artillery fires on the ground (pars. 29, 43c, and 48).
(3) Bridge umpires, assigned specially to important bridges which are subject to air attack, in order to assure effective umpiring (par. 27).
8. IDENTIFICATION, a. Personnel and Motor Vehicles.
|Director and higher commanders and staffs and all umpire personnel.||White helmet band or shoulder loop.||Green flag.|
|Observers||Green helmet band or shoulder loop.||
|Blue force||Blue helmet band or shoulder loop.||*Blue marker.|
|Red force||Red helmet band or shoulder loop.||*Red marker.|
|Correspondent||Green brassard with white letter C.||*Blue (Red) marker.|
|Photographer||Green brassard with white letter P.||*Blue (Red) marker.|
* 0f prominent size-paint, placard, or sticker-in front and rear, without obscuring permanent markings.b. Armored Vehicles. (1) Armored vehicles (par. 22a) in action will carry a painted or cloth band 12 inches wide around the body of the vehicle as follows:
Blue force--------------Blue band.
Red force----------------Red band.
This identification is inapplicable to unarmored vehicles of an armored unit.
(2) If a vehicle is ruled out of action by an umpire, a black flag (par. 9) will be displayed from. the vehicle.
|Blue force:||5-foot white band around fuselage between trailing edge of wing and tail.|
|Red force:||5-foot international orange band around each wing, center of band one-third of way in from wing tips.|
d. Supply Vehicles. No vehicle whatever of the opposing forces is authorized to carry the green flag, except ambulances evacuating actual casualties or returning therefrom, and motor couriers under the provisions of paragraph 39e.
9. CONTROL FLAGS, a. When opposing units are in contact, and at other
times when appropriate, control flags will be used as follows:
|White||Unit umpire||All troops of the unit halt in place while the flag is displayed (pars. 11 a and 44h).|
(Inapplicable to armored elements except the red flag after dark (par. 45e))
|Unit umpire||Opposing infantry (horse cavalry) may advance toward the unit where the flag is displayed, because they have fire sueriority. If they do so, the weaker troops must with draw correspond ingly or be cap tured (par. llc (2)).|
(Inapplicable to armored elements except the red flag after dark (par. 45e))
|Unit umpire||Opposing infantry (horse cavalry) may not advance toward the unit where the flag is displayed, because they have not fire superiority.|
|Red with white center.||Fire umpire or field artillery battalion umpire.||Artillery fire is falling within 100 yards of the flag.|
|Orange||Gun crew||Effective antitank gun (par. 23) is firing from near the flag.|
|Black||Vehicle||Every vehicle will carry a black flag which will be displayed prominently if the vehicle or accompany ing weapon is destroyed or ruled out of action.|
|Black and white||Fire umpire||Lethal concentration of nonpersistent toxic gas within 100 yards of the flag.|
b. The following sizes are suitable:
|White, blue, and red:||Foot troops-flag 4 by 4 feet; staff 8 feet. Mounted troops and armored vehicles-flag 2 by 2 feet; staff 5 feet.|
|Red with white center:||Flag 2 by 2 feet; staff 5 feet.|
|Orange:||Flag 3 by 3 feet; staff 5 feet.|
|Black and white:||Flag 2 by 2 feet; staff 5 feet.|
|Black:||Flag 2 by 2 feet; staff 3/a feet.|
10. BASIS OF UMPIRING, a. The outcome of combat is essentially the sum
of the outcomes of many encounters between small units of the opposing forces.
It follows that realism in maneuvers can be obtained only by painstaking umpiring
at all points of contact.
b. Umpiring is based on a studied and reasonably accurate determination of three controlling factors:
(1) Fire power of the infantry, including the effect on it of artillery, tanks, and aviation (pars. 13-17).
(2) Losses of personnel and essential equipment, since they affect infantry fire power either directly or indirectly (pars. 18-25).
(3) Delays, which affect movement and ultimately fire power in some degree (pars. 26-28).
c. The great mass of umpires should be with or among small units which are or will be in contact with the opposing forces. Umpires at the headquarters of the director or of large units should be held to a minimum (pars. 39 and 40).
11. DECISIONS. When opposing forces approach conact-and occasionally
under other conditions-a decision by umpires is required, in order tliat there
may be tactical realism.. The procedure is as follows:
a. Umpires with opposing units display white flags, halting their units pending a decision (par. 9a). Other unit umpires in the same locality also display white flags, in order not to distort the tactical situation unnaturally.
b. The umpires concerned then assemble promptly and confer as to the situation of their units.
c. One of the following decisions should result:
(1) Neither force may advance. The white flags are replaced by red flags along the fronts of both forces (par. 44f,g).
(2) One force may advance, and the other must either withdraw correspondingly or be captured. White flags are replaced by red flags along the front of the stronger force and by blue flags along the front of the weaker force. If the stronger force advances but the weaker force does not withdraw, the action is halted in time to avoid physical contact and those elements of the weaker force which are engaged actually are declared prisoners of war (par. 37b). At the same time, the fire power of the attacker is reduced by the total fire power of the captured force, In addition, the attacker is delayed for 1 hour, less 10 minutes, for each unit of the unreduced ratio of fire superiority in excess of four. Thus, if the ratio of fire superiority is 5/2:1, the delay is 45 minutes.
d. In case the umpires of one force disagree with those of the opposing force, a compromise must be reached promptly, in order that the maneuver may progress. In case any umpire displays an inflexible and unreasonable attitude, he should be reported to director headquarters as soon as possible by other umpires who are familiar with the facts.
e. In case an artillery fire is reported which falls in an area where white flags are being displayed, it will be marked and umpires will credit it in determining relative fire power (par. 15a). Except for determining relative fire power, however, the artillery fire will be considered as commencing when the white flags are replaced by colored flags.
f. If effective umpiring and ground decisions become definitely impracticable on account of darkness, fog, close terrain, or other conditions, red flags should be displayed along the front of both forces. Such action is in no sense an armistice, but merely restricts movement in the degree necessary to prevent confusion (par. 44i).
g. With respect to air attacks, ground umpires-
(1) Assess losses of airplanes other than field artillery liaison airplanes due to antiaircraft fire (par. 25), except those due to concentrated caliber .30 fire (FM 105-6). A field artillery liaison airplane flying below 1000 feet above the ground will be ruled shot down if subjected to 1000 rounds or more of concentrated caliber .30 fire at a slant range of 500 yards or less. Losses are reported directly to the airplane pilot, the air formation commander, the air umpire, or director headquarters.
(2) Determine ground effects due to air action, except attacks against airdromes. Such decisions must be made and communicated to the units concerned as promptly as possible, in order to impress troops with the effect of aviation.
h. Air umpires and airdrome umpires (FM 105-6) make the following decisions:
(1) Admissibility and validity of information, including photographs obtained by reconnaissance and observation teams.
(2) Losses of own airplanes and balloons in air fighting and in attacks on airdromes.
(3) Effects of air attacks on own airdromes.
(4) Losses of airplanes flying low over concentrated caliber .30 fire.
12. SUCCESSIVE DECISIONS, a. In general, a deciion results in some change
of dispositions by one or both forces, in which case white flags must be displayed
again and a new decision made. In other words, the combat phase of a maneuver
consists of intermittent actions marked by blue and red flags, separated by
the display of white flags and the ensuing decisions.
b. The interruption of action, in order to permit decisions, delays the maneuver. Such delays, however, counteract the natural tendency of maneuvers to progress more rapidly than actual combat. Moreover, it is only by frequent and considered decisions, based on facts at points of contact, that a maneuver can afford correct and useful training commensurate with the effort and expense involved.
13. INFANTRY FIRE POWER, a. An infantry element or any element acting
as infantry should be permitted to advance only when it has decisive superiority
of fire as compared with the elements immediately opposing it frontaally. This
superiority never should be less than 2 to 1, and generally should be 3 or 4
to 1. If the defender has good cover and field of fire, or if the attacker has
little cover, there should be no hesitation in requiring a superiority of 5
to 1, or even more.
b. The tendency is to favor the attacker, permitting him to advance with only a small fire superiority, whereas war experience has show^n conclusively that a determined defender, well placed, can delay or even stop a greatly superior force. However, in surprise attacks, and especially flank attacks, the defender may fail to use his fire power completely, may be disposed so that he cannot use it, or may be unable to control and coordinate it properly due to surrise and lack of preparation. In such cases, the attacker may be permitted to advance with a nominal or apparent fire superiority no greater than that of the defender, or even less.
c. The machine gun is especially effective in defense, and every effort must be made to ascertain and weigh fairly those which arc effective in a given situation. Machine guns should be supplied abundantly with blank ammunition, and must fire sufficiently to reveal their presence to opposing troops and to umpires (par. 34b).
d. The situation may be such that a sound decision can be reached only by dividing the action into parts which are distinct so far as fire power is concerned. For example, one company may attack another company frontally, which is one action and need not be divided. The fire power is about the same for both forces, and the decision is a stalemate. But, if the attacking company employs one platoon frontally and two platoons to envelop, the situation is quite different and must be divided into two actions. The frontal attack is stopped, but the enveloping attack quite possibly may be decisively superior in fire power and should be permitted to advance. Thus the attacking company may be successful by virtue of its maneuver.
e. Credit should be allowed for weapons which are authorized but not yet issued, provided that trained crews are in proper positions and simulate action so far as possible. It is desirable to improvise dummy weapons.
14. DETERMINATION OF INFANTRY FIRE POWER. a. Manifestly umpires cannot
follow and evaluate the fire of infantry weapons individually. Nevertheless
it is essential to determine the collective fire effect of infantry units in
a form which permits comparison. The adopted system is based on the assumption
that all weapons in action are employed with full effectiveness under the attendant
conditions. Differences in fire effect then are due principally to numbers and
relative effect .of weapons in action, and to range. It is practicable ordinarily
to determine these factors with an accuracy sufficient for the purpose.
b. The number of weapons can be tallied readily by company umpires, and includes only those weapons whose fire is effective in the situation being decided. Weapons in support and reserve and those firing in another situation are excluded.
c. The relative effect of the several weapons cannot be evaluated precisely, but is indicated sufficiently accurately by the following factors:
|0 - 100 yards||100 - 200 yards||0 - 300 yards||0 - 500 yards||500 - 1000 yards||1000 - 1500 yards||1500 - maximum effective range of weapon|
|Rifle, caliber .30 all models||1||0.5|
|Light machine gun||6||6||3|
|Heavy machine gun||10||10||5|
|4.2-inch mortar, HE||15||15||15|
i Including caliber .50 wheu used against personnel.d. Infantry fire power is determined for each rifle company or smaller separate unit in action. Fire power of heavy weapons is added to that of the rifle unit supported. The total, modified for artillery, tank, and airplane effect (pars. 15, 16, and 17) and for losses (pars. 18, 19), is the basis of a decision according to paragraph lie above.
|5||rifle squads in action; others in support; squads at full strength of 11 rifles and 1 automatic rifle||70|
|2||light machine guns in action at 400 yards||18|
|3||60-mm mortars in action||18|
|4||heavy machine guns supporting the company, 2 of them at 800 yards and 2 at 1,200 yards||30|
|2||81-mm mortars in action||30|
|2||105-mm infantry howitzers in action||30|
|2||4.2-inch chemical mortars in action firing HE||30|
15. EFFECT OF ARTILLERY ON FIRE POWER, a. When an infantry element
actually is under artillery fire (par. 29), its fire power will be taken as
reduced by onehalf so long as the artillery fire continues (par. lie). Thus,
in the example above, if one platoon of three rifle squads in action was under
artillery fire, the fire power of the company would be reduced by 21.
b. When artillery in position is taken under well-placed fire by the opposing artillery-counterbattery fire-such fire neutralizes the artillery subjected to it. The duration of neutralization of each battery is 5 minutes per battery minute of counterbattery fire against it. Thus counter battery fire assists the infantry by interrupting artillery fire against such infantry.
c. When the umpires concerned know that the balance of fire power between forces has been changed sufficiently, red flags will be replaced by blue flags along the front of the weaker force during the period of artillery fire with " out the display of white flags (par. llc(2) ).
16. EFFECT OF TANKS AND TANK DESTROYERS (SP) ON FIRE POWER, a. Tanks
and tank destroyers (SP) in action will be taken as neutralizing infantry
within 100 yards of any tank or tank destroyer (SP), except that the armored
vehicles themselves may be attacked as described in par. 22d. The fire power
of such infantry against opposing infantry is zero while the tanks or tank
destroyers (SP) are present.
b. The effect of tanks and tank destroyers (SP) on artillery fire power is in diverting the artillery from support of the infantry to antitank defense. Such effect is included automatically in the supporting fires which are reported for marking (par. 29).
17. EFFECT OF AVIATION ON FIRE POWER, a. Air attacks against ground
targets require indication of the target from the air, in order that the ground
umpire may identify it. Dropped messages, visual signals, or air ground radio
may be used. Visual signals include paper bags of flour of not more than '4
pound, flakes of paper, sprays of lime water or other inert liquids, flares
and other pyrotechnics, and airplane landing lights.
b. Deployed infantry and artillery in position will be taken as neutralized by attack by low-flying airplanes as follows: One airplane against a company or battery or less; three airplanes against a battalion; and nine airplanes against a regiment- During the attack, the fire power of the infantry against opposing infantry is zero, and the artillery fire is interrupted.
18. GENERAL, a. Losses considered in umpiring are confined to those
which have a material effect on realistic progress of maneuvers (par. lOb),
as follows: casualties of rifle units; destruction or capture of field artillery
and antiaircraft pieces, antitank guns, armored and unarmored vehicles; destruction
b. It is essential that the personnel losses of rifle companies and troops of infantry and horse cavalry be assessed and recorded, since such losses affect fire power and thus influence the progress of a maneuver. Units may be weakened by accumulating losses during a maneuver so as to affect the final outcome decisively.
c. Losses are assessed by the umpire with the company, not by umpires with opposing units. The umpire keeps a running record of losses, and informs the company commander of them from time to time. If a company umpire is not present when elements of his company are subjected to artillery fire, the fire umpire will send written information to the company umpire as to the number of the company personnel and battery-minutes of fire involved.
d. Personnel, losses are listed below in percent of the strength involved. Ordinarily umpires must convert such proportions into numbers according to the strength of the element concerned. The total numerical loss at any time. however, must be reconverted to percent in determining fire power. Example: The actual initial strength of a rifle company is 200. Losses are assessed for separate," successive actions as follows: Entire company, 2 percent; one platoon, 1 percent; two platoons, 3 percent. The corresponding numerical losses are 4, /a, and 3-total 8, which is 4 percent of 200. Thereafter, any computed fire power, such as that of paragraph 14e, is reduced by 4 percent or 9, on the assumption that losses of fire power other than for rifles are in the same proportion as for rifles.
e. Assessed casualties do not leave their companies actually; in fact, they are recorded quantitatively, not individually. They are distinct from artificial casualties (par. 38).
f. Assessed casualties will be considered as not replaced during the maneuver.
g. The losses to be assessed as a result of fire and other actions by the opposing force necessarily are a matter of judgment in some respects. The relative strength of the opposing forces is an especially important factor. For example, a rifle company attacking a squad might be expected to sustain comparatively few casualties; but if the company attacked another company, its losses undoubtedly would be heavy.
h. The data in paragraphs 19-25 are to be taken as a guide in weighing the various aspects of each case. It is to be emphasized that the usual tendency of umpires is to assess losses which are grossly excessive in the light of war experience.
i. For losses to be assessed as a result of the use of chemicals, see par. 33.
19. INFANTRY, a. War experience indicates that an infantry regiment
may sustain extreme casualties as great at 15 percent during 1 day of severe
combat. While losses of a particular portion of the regiment might exceed this
proportion, the figure affords a useful check on the total casualties assessed
by company umpires.
b. Company umpires should penalize improper formations and undue exposure by increased losses. Doubling- the usual losses is a severe penalty in this connection.
c. The average losses sustained by infantry are indicated as follows:
|Fire by opposing infantry||l-3 percent per hour.|
|Personnel within an artillery concentration:|
|3 percent per battery per minute.|
|3 percent per battery per case.|
|1 percent per battery per minute.|
|1/6 of 1 percent per battery per minute.|
|3 percent per battery per minute.|
|3 percent per battery per case.|
|Infantry overrun by tanks or tank destroyer (SP) :|
|3 percent per tank or TD (SP) per attack.|
|1 percent per tank or TD (SP) per attack.|
Infantry attacked by mounted horse cavalry-elements actually struck
|2 percent per attack.|
|Infantry in column attacked by an appropriate number of low-flying
(One airplane against a company or less; three airplanes against a battalion; and nine airplanes against a regiment. If the number is materially smaller or larger, the effect is assessed correspondingly.)
|10 percent per attack.|
|2 percent per attack.|
|Infantry deployed or in bivouac attacked by an appropriate
number of low-flying airplanes:
(One airplane against a company or less; three airplanes against a battalion; and nine airplanes against a regiment. If the number is materially smaller or larger, the effect is assessed correspondingly.)
|3 percent per attack.|
|1 percent per attack.|
|Firing unit||Add to losses|
|Two battalions||20 percent.|
|Three battalions||30 percent.|
|Four battalions||40 percent.|
|More than four battalions||50 percent.|
Example: Six batteries (two battalions par. 3 If) fire for 3 minutes
on 100 prone infantry. Losses are 18 battery minutes at 1 percent per minute,
or 18, plus 20 percent (massing of two battalions) or total losses of 22.
20. FIELD ARTILLERY, a. War experience indicates that casualties of
artillery personnel are small and insufficient to interrupt firing or affect
progress of the infantry materially. Hence, in a maneuver there is no need of
assessing casualties of field artillery.
b. When a battery in position is attacked by either foot or mounted troops, decision as to capture or destruction of the battery is based on relative fire power (par. 14) in directions other than those of the artillery pieces. No advance is permissible against cannon fire at short range.
c. See paragraph 15b in connection with neutralization of artillery by counterbattery fire.
d. Artillery employed as antitank guns will be subject to the provisions of paragraph 23.
c. Destroyed and captured artillery (par. 37) will be ruled out of action for the duration of the maneuver, or for such lesser period as may be fixed beforehand by the director.
21. HORSE CAVALRY, a. Personnel losses of horse cavalry fighting mounted vary largely with speed, formation, and cover, and are indicated as follows:
|Mounted cavalry attacking deployed infantry||5 percent per attack.|
|Mounted cavalry attacking infantry in column||3 percent per attack.|
|Mounted cavalry attacking artillery in position||2 percent per attack.|
|Mounted cavalry attacking artillery in column||2 percent per attack.|
|Mounted cavalry within an artillery concentration||Same as personnel in trucks (par. 19c).|
|Mounted cavalry attacked by an appropriate number of low-flying airplanes||Same as infantry (par. 19c).|
22. VEHICLES, a. The following weapons and ammunition are taken as effective against armored vehicles:
|Weapon (1) and ammunition||Maximum effective range (yards) against.|
|Armored cars M8, scout cars, personnel, and gun carriers||Light tanks, tank destroyers (SP)||Medium tanks|
|Caliber .50, AP||500||Ineffective||Ineffective|
|37-mm or 40-mm gun, AP||1000||400||3400|
|57-mm gun, AP||1000||800||(3) 400|
|75-mm gun or howiter or larger, AP or HE (2)||1000||1000||1000|
(1) On ground, stationary vehicle or vehicle equipped with gyrostabilizer
(2) Regardless of weapon, a range of over 1000 yards is taken as ineffective, on account of the difficulty of umpiring and the smaller probability of hitting.
(3) Flank and rear only.
|Weapon and Ammunition||Effective against||Conditions|
|Rifle and grenade launcher; antitank grenade||All armored vehicles except turret of medium tank; unarmored vehicles.||Rifle with launcher attached must be at position from which sack is thrown.|
|Rocket Launcher; rocket||Same.||Same.|
|Fragmentation hand grenade||Open-top armored and unarmored vehicles||Hit in open top must be obtained.|
Sacks must be thrown from a concealed or covered position, or from one which is dead to the fire of the vehicle at the time. Destruction is assessed only by the mark of the sack on the vehicle itself.
f. Vehicles lost will be ruled out of action for the duraion of the maneuver, or for such lesser period as may be fixed beforehand by the director; or they may be ruled disabled in order to afford maintenance training (j below).
With surprise: armored, one; unarmored, two.
Without surprise: armored, one-fifth; unarmored, one-third.
23. ANTITANK GUNS. a. Antitank guns are those which are effective against
armored vehicles as listed in paragraph 22a.
b. Antitank guns in position may be-
(1) Captured or destroyed as a result of attack by either foot or mounted troops (par. 20b).
(2) Neutralized by counterbattery fire (par. 15b), as described in paragraph 29.
(3) Neutralized by observed fire of cither ground or stationary vehicular mortars, directed on a visible gun and indicated by an umpire. The duration of the effect is that of the fire itself.
(4) Overrun and destroyed by charging tanks or other vehicles unless the vehicles are destroyed beforehand by fire (par. 22e).
(5) Destroyed by stationary effective weapons (par. 22a), using direct laying under conditions described in paragraph 24.
c. Guns lost or captured (par. 37) will be ruled out of action for the duration of the maneuver, or for such lesser period as may be fixed beforehand by the director.
24. FIRE DUELS, a. A fire duel with effective weapons (par. 22a) between
tanks, other vehicles, and/or ground guns is difficult to umpire. Nevertheless
painstaking umpiring is essential, since such duels may have a profound effect
on the progress of a maneuver.
b. Since the weapons engaged are effective against armor, the outcome of a duel depends on who opens fire first the number of weapons involved, and the size of target presented.
c. While the effective range is as great as 1,000 yards in some cases, it is impracticable to umpire a fire duel at more than 500 yards. Hence losses will be assessed only when and if the opponents are within this distance of each other.
d. Guns of a moving vehicle are taken as ineffective against another vehicle or a ground gun unless the moving vehicle is equipped with a gyrostabilizer. In this case, the effectiveness will be taken as 25 percent of a stationary gun of the same type.
e. Guns and vehicle;; actually firing in a fire duel will be scored as follows:
Each effective (par. 22a) stationary gun---
|(1)||Ground gun behind natural or artificial cover (1)||2|
|(2)||Vehicle gun behind natural or artificial cover so as to preent a target of substantially the same size as a ground gun||2|
|(3)||Ground or vehicle gun unprotected by natural or artificial cover||1|
(1) Concealment is not cover necessarily.f. (1) When a gun opens fire, it must display an orange flag (par. 9), and must be kept laid accurately on its target. Otherwise its fire will be given no credit. If the opposing gun (vehicle) opens fire at the same time, the gun having the lesser score will be ruled destroyed. If the scores are the same, the gun having the lesser cover will be ruled destroyed. However, if the weaker gun withdraws under cover within 30 seconds after hostile fire is opened, it will not be destroyed.
25. AIRPLANES, a. Losses of airplanes are assessed by ground or air
umpires as indicated in paragraphs 1 Ig and h. Losses due to antiaircraft fire
are assessed as indicated below.
b. 3-Inch or Larger Antiaircraft Artillery. The following table showing number of airplanes shot down by one battery (four guns)1 will be used as a guide:
|Altitude, feet (2)||1,050-16,500||Over 16,500||Over 1,050|
|Type of target(3)||S||F||S||F||S||F|
|Time in action: (4) (5)|
(1) For figbter planes, reduce losses by one-half. At night the indicated losses
are applicable only during the period while the target is illuminated or during
(2) No losses are assessed for altitudes below 1,050 feet.
(3) 8-single plane; F-formation of planes.
(4) Credit is allowed only during the period, not exceeding 30 seconds, that accurate firing data, within the fuze range limits of the director, are applied to the guns.
(5)It is desirable, when practicable, that all antiaircraft fire be represented by pyrotechnic signal, visible to pilots.
26. OBSTACLES, a. Demolitions and other obstacles have the primary purpose
of delaying the opposing force. However, once executed, obstacles affect both
of the opposing forces alike. The work will be either actual or simulated in
detail, under the supervision of unit umpires, so as to confine the number and
effect of obstacles approximately to realities. Operations will be executed
actually, so far as practicable, and the remainder estimated as to time and
personnel. During simulated operations, materiel must actually be on hand and
that used checked and tallied.
b. A simulated obstacle must be guarded in order to enforce compliance by all troops with the conditions attached to the obstacle by the umpire. The guard will be supplied by the unit executing the obstacle. The guard will have the authority of umpire personnel, and will wear proper identification.
c. Upon completion of a simulated obstacle, the umpire will supply the guard with a statement on the accompanying form. If no umpire is present during the work, a company officer will supply the statement, which will be checked and authenticated by an umpire as soon as practicable. However, the statement is valid without umpire authentication. The time of detonation of a demolition prepared previously may be entered by the guard if no umpire is present at the time.
d. It is permissible to go around an obstacle, provided the movement is actual. Assumed or constructive movements will not be permitted, even with appropriate delays.
e. If an obstacle is defended by troops and is attacked by opposing troops, the action will be decided in the same manner as other actions between troops. The conditions attached to reducing the obstacle itself will be effective only after completion of the troop action.
f. In order that air observers may distinguish bridges which have been demolished by simulation, such bridges will be marked at both ends by large white markers, such as a bed sheet. Responsibility for marking will rest with the ground unit which executes the demolition (see also par. 27).
g. Guards at obstacles must remain on duty constantly until relieved by an umpire, or until the termination of the maneuver phase. Sufficient class G or other rations should be left with guards. Vehicles carrying green flags will not be used to carry food to guards.
h. When opposing troops have reduced an obstacle, guards will be relieved by an umpire, and then will be processed as prisoners (par. 37).
i. Under no circumstances will an umpire with a unit delayed by an obstacle modify in any way the provisions of the certification of obstacle in possession of a guard. (Sec reverse side for additional instructions)
(To be executed by company officer when umpire is not present)
|1. Type and nature of obstacle:||(As: bridge demolition; bridge damaged by bombs; road crater)|
|2. Method used:||(Brief description of work done, as: destroyed abutments by tamped charges, etc.)|
|3. Personnel used:||(As: 1 squad, 2 hours)|
|4. Equipment used:||(As: 1 earth auger, 1 hour, 1 squad demolition set)|
|5. Material or explosive used:||(As: for abutments, 6 charges 200 pounds each; steel, 10 charges 15 pounds each)|
|6. Date and hour started________________ Completed (to be determined by umpire if present) _______________|
|7. Date and hour bombed||
1. I have inspected the obstacle described above, and find that it
|create an effective military obstacle.|
a. Engineer personnel and time required: ________________________________ (Give two alternatives: For example: one platoon 6 hours or one company 3 1/2hours. Last alternative based on maximum number of men who can be effectively employed on job. Time is taken from time of arrival of men and material on the site.)
b. Material: (As judged necessary by engineer umpires of unit reducing obstacle.)
c. Equipment: (Reduce time given in a above by 1/3 for suitable labor-saving equipment; suitability determined by engineer umpire of unit reducing obstacle.)
|Obstacle reduced at__________||AM
|Authority:||Same as umpires.|
|Number:||Unit executing simulated obstacles leaves at least two guards at each obstacle.|
|Equipment:||White helmet band or shoulder loops. White control flags at least 2 by 2 feet. Flashlight. Watch. Pencil. In case of bridge, two white ground panels at least 5 by 5 feet. Food and water for remainder of maneuver. Personal equipment. This paper.|
|Actions:||Remove Blue (Red) identification and substitute White as soon as obstacle,
If a demolition, fill in time of firing if no umpire is present.
If a bridge, place white panel on ground near end of bridge.
Use white control flag to stop all traffic, both friendly and hostile, before it reaches -obstacle.
Show this paper to explain conditions of obstacle. Permit passage of Army vehicles with green flags only.
Allow civilian traffic to proceed.
One sentinel to be on guard at all times, day and night.
In case any vehicles or troops fail to stop as ordered, report them by name, vehicle number, or unit to any umpire or to your commanding officer when you are relieved. When opposing troops have repaired obstacle, have umpire sign this paper and relieve you.
Then report to nearest troops for processing as prisoners, which will return you to your unit.
|Actions:||Require operations to be actual whenever pracicable. Fill in data on
reverse side, and give to guard at obstacle.
Check that material to execute or reduce simulated obstacles if at site when operations are carried out.
Visit as soon as possible all detachments of your company sent on obstacle work, so as to complete the certification.
No umpire may modify conditions as to repair of an obstacle imposed by umpire present during execution.
|Green flags will not be used on vehicles in
order to carry food to guards of obstacles.
It is permissible to go around an obstacle, provided that the movement is actual.
If an obstacle is defended by troops and is attacked by opposing troops, the action will be decided in the same manner as other
actions between troops. Conditions as to reducing the obstacle will be effective only after completion of the troop action.
27. AIR ATTACKS AGAINST BRIDGES, a. Bridges frequently are important
targets of bombardment aviation, and the resulting delay exercises a profound
influence on the progress of a maneuver. Such attacks ordinarily are planned,
so that director headquarters can and should be notified in advance, in.order
that bridge umpires may be present.
b. Bridge umpires should be accompanied by personnel for guarding bridges if closed to traffic, and be equipped with air-ground vehicular radio for communication with air umpires. Umpires of antiaircraft units defending bridges may be used as bridge umpires if instructed properly.
c. When radio communication is available, the air umpire will report from the air the number of hits and weight of bomb used. The bridge umpire then will fix the delay and the conditions as to repair. If radio communication is not available, the number of hits must be determined beforehand and communicated to the bridge umpires through director headquarters or other available means.
d. Bridge umpires should be informed by antiaircraft umpires of the number of airplanes shot down by antiaircraft fire prior to the time bombs were released (par. 25). The bridge umpire then reduces the number of hits reported by the air umpire accordingly.
e. Delays to be assessed for one hit are indicated generally as follows, but should be varied according to the conditions in each case:
(1) Steel truss and concrete bridges of substantial construction:
Bomb 100 pounds-no effect assessed.
Bomb 300 to 600 pounds-delay of 2 hours after arrival of men and material-platoon of engineers and two truckloads of timber.
Bomb 1,000 to 2,000 pounds-delay of 3 hours after arrival of men and material-platoon of engineers and three truckloads of timber.
(2) Wooden highway and railroad bridges:
Bomb 100 pounds or heavier-same as bomb 300 to 600 pounds in (1) above.
(3) Ponton bridge:
Bomb 100 pounds or heavier- 1 hour after additional material for one-third of bridge is at the site.
28. OTHER DELAYS AND NEUTRALIZATION. Deays and neutralization due to
causes other than obstacles are indicated as follows:
a. Road, bridge, or other defile interdicted by artillery or mortar fire-delay for duration of fire.
b. Ponton bridge under construction attacked by artillery or mortar fire, or by small-arms fire at less than 1,000 yards-delay in construction for duration of fire.
c. Column attacked by tanks:
d. Column, other than tanks, attacked by cavalry or by armored elements, other than tanks-delay for duration of attack.
(1) Foot troops-delay 15 minutes.
(2) Vehicles (other than tanks), mounted and mixed column-delay 30 minutes.
f. Troop movements within 100 yards of where an artillery concentration is being marked-delay for the duration of the concentration. A company, similar, or smaller unit, which moves in violation of this provision will be penalized by an additional delay of 30 minutes, subject only to movement which is forced on it by movement of hostile troops. The penalty will be assessed by the unit umpire or by the fire umpire if no unit umpire is present (par. 48d).
For troops only, in column-delay of 15 minutes.
Vehicles, mounted or mixed column-delay of 30
29. GENERAL, a. Every effort will be made to mark on the ground the
point of fall and duration of all artillery fire which is reasonably concentrated,
except counterbatery fire (b below). For this purpose, each artillery batalion
umpire and each fire umpire is furnished a vehicular voice radio.
b. The artillery battalion umpire broadcasts the coordinates of the center of each battery target and the duration of the fire. The report is received by all artillery battalion umpires and all fire umpires within hearing. Except when the target is artillery, the fire is marked by cither the artillery battalion umpire or the fire umpire nearest the target. When the target is opposing artillery, the artillery battalion umpire concerned suspends the fire of batteries which are neutralized.
c. A battery concentration is marked by a flag (par. 9) and the fire is taken as effective within 100 yards of the flag in all directions. It is desirable, when practicable, to supplement the flag by a lime bomb or other sound or pyrotechnic signal, so as-to attract attention to the flag initially.
d. If two batteries fire simultaneously on the same target, a flag is used for each battery. Tlie flags are separated by about 100 yards. Fire of two batteries is taken as effective over the area within 100 yards of each flag. Thus two batteries firing on a target for 3 minutes, or 6 battery minutes, achieves greater effect through covering a larger area, than one battery firing 6 minutes. If a battalion of three batteries fires simultaneously on the same target, a third flag is placed about 100 yards from each of the other two flags, forming a triangle. Fire of the battalion, three batteries, is taken as effective over the area within 100 yards of each flag. If more than one battalion fires simultaneously on the same target, flags are set out as for one battalion (par. 19dand31f).
e. If the batteries of a battalion fire on a line, the artillery battalion umpire broadcasts the coordinates of the ends of the line. A flag is used for each battery. Flags are placed on the line, spaced approximately from the center, and are separated by about 200 yards. Fire is taken as effective for a single battery within 100 yards of each flag.
f. No attempt is made to mark the fire of a battery unless such fire is confined to an area 200 by 200 yards or less, and lasts at least 1 minute.
g. When tanks, tank destroyers, and antiaircraft artillery are used as field artillery they \\'i\\ act as reinforcing artillery. Fires of tank platoons, tank destroyer platoons, and antiaircraft gun batteries will be broadcast by the artillery umpire with the reinforced artillery battalion as artillery battery fires.
30. CODE COORDINATES. Maps or photomaps, scale 1/20,000, ordinarily are used in marking fires. A code coordinate system is employed for brevity as indicated in figures 1 and 2. As a standard procedure in lettering the grid of any map, the grid intersection inside the border of the map and nearest the lower left corner is C for the X coordinate and 0 for the Y coordinate. Examples of code designations of points are given in the figures.
31. PROCEDURE, a. Speed and accuracy in marking artillery fires depend
on simple and uniform procedure, thorough training of personnel, and strict
b. A single frequency is used for all fire marking radio sets. Broadcasts during a maneuver are limited to-
Emergency calls for ambulances.
Requests for replacement or repair of fire-marking
Other matters approved by the director.
Care must be used to avoid broadcasts that can be used
improperly by the opposing forces (par. 41b).
c. In broadcasting a fire, the message is limited to-
(1) Number of the sending set.
(2) Name of the map quadrangle containing the target.
(3) Serial number of the map sheet containing the target.
(4) Blue, or Red, referring to the sending side.
(5) Code coordinates of the target.
(6) Nature of the target if fire is observed.
(7) Duration of fire in minutes.
(8) Number of batteries firing.
(9) Designation of chemical, if chemicals are used (pars. 33b(3), c(3), and d(3)).
(10) Hour of firing if a prepared fire (e below), or if part of a massed fire (f below) -
(11) The caliber (light, medium, heavy) of the artillery firing and the compass back azimuth of the direction of fire. These data are not to be broadcast if chemicals are used, in order to keep messages brief.
d. A fire is broadcast and then repeated once. The form is as follows:
(1) Observed fire of 5 minutes' duration, using three batteries: 85 Boyce 17 Red Charlie 2 Peter 4 Machine Guns 53 Mike 22 Repeat 85 Boyce 17 Red Charlie 2 Peter 4 Machine Guns 53 Mike 22. Explanation: 85, number of sending set; Boyce, -name of map quadrangle; 17 number of map sheet; Charlie 2 Peter 4, coordinates of target; Machine Guns, nature of target, given only when fire is observed on target; 5 duration of fire in minutes; 3, numer of batteries firing; Mike 22, target is being fired upon by medium artillery from a Y azimuth direction of 2000 mils, given only when chemicals are not employed.
(2) Same fire as (1) above, except unobserved, includes tear gas, and is a part of the massing of the fire of several battalions: 85 Boyce 17 Red Charlie 2 Peter 4 Red 53 Charlie Nan Charlie 1530 Repeat 85 Boyce 17 Red Charlie 2 Peter 4 Red 53 Charlie Nan Charlie 1530. Red between Peter 4 and 53 is merely to separate numbers.
e. Scheduled fires may be broadcast beforehand, usually during quiet periods at night, if it is reasonably certain that fires will be executed properly at the times specified. The form for broadcasting such fires is the same as described in d above, except that the message is concluded with Peter, followed by the hour the fire is to be delivered, for example, Peter 0520.
f. When a number of battalions are concentrated on a common target, each battalion umpire broadcasts his battalion mission. The form for broadcasting such fires is the same as described in d above, except that the message is concluded with Charlie, followed by the hour the fire is delivered; for example, Charlie 1530.
g. The broadcast of a fire is received by all fire umpires and battalion umpires within hearing. It is acknowledged by the one closest to the target, for example: 87 from 66 Roger. 87 indicates the number of the umpire who sent the mission; 66 the number of the umpire who will mark the fire, and Roger indicates received.
h. In the case of observed fires, the marker goes to the point designated by the coordinates, but places the flag at the nearest target which is of the same nature as that broadcast, regardless of coordinates. If the target is moving infantry, it may be necessary to depart considerably from the coordinates, due to lag of marking and movement of the target.
i. When a fire mission is not acknowledged, the sender may repeat the broadcast at any time after 10 seconds, provided the net is free of other sending.
32. RECORDS. Radio operators with artillery battalion umpires and fire umpires will keep radio and target logs on the accompanying form, and turn them in to director headquarters at the conclusion of the maneuver. Negative reports will be submitted in case no fires are broadcast or marked.
33. CHEMICALS, a. Chemicals other than smoke will be employed in maneuvers
only as ordered by proper authority in each case. Smoke may be employed as appropriate
in all maneuvers. Gas masks will be carried habitually by troops in maneuvers.
b. Smoke. (1) Smoke fired by ground weapons will be marked by smoke pots ignited in the impact area on the following basis:
8 rounds of 4.2-inch chemical mortar______l pot.
12 rounds of 81-mm mortar_____________l pot.
1 battery minute of artillery fire__________2 pots.
(2) Smoke fired by chemical or infantry mortars will be marked by the umpire
of the firing unit. Umpires concerned will verify the capabilities, including
ammunition supply, of the firing units..
(3) Smoke fired by artillery will be marked by artillery fire umpires. Smoke missions will be broadcast as for HE missions, adding "WP" after the numeral designating the number of batteries firing.
(4) Effects of smoke will be assessed by umpires as follows:
(a) Fire delivered by infantry weapons covered by an effective smoke concentration, prescribed fire power reduced by 50 percent.
(b) Fire delivered by infantry weapons against a target covered by an effective smoke concentration, prescribed fire power reduced by 25 percent.
(c) Antitank and artillery fire against tanks, vehicles, and other targets covered by an effective smoke concentration, no effect.
c. Tear Gas. (1) Tear gas fired by ground weapons will be marked by tear gas pots, ignited in the impact area on the following basis:
8 rounds of 4.2-inch chemical mortar_______ 1 pot.
1 battery minute of artillery fire_-_________ 1 pot.
(It is assumed that tear gas will invariably be mixed with HE.)
(2) Tear gas fired by chemical mortars will be marked by the umpire of the firing unit. Umpires concerned will verify the capabilities, including ammunition supply, of the firing units.
(3) Tear gas fired by artillery will be mixed with HE. When tear gas is fired by artillery the mission will be broadcast as for normal HE missions adding "CN" after the numeral designating number of batteries firing. Tear gas fired by artillery will be marked by artillery fire umpires. The artillery battalion umpire will add 10 percent to the ammunition requirements listed in paragraph 43f, when tear gas is mixed with HE.
(4) The effects of tear gas will be actual.
d. Persistent Gas. (1) Persistent toxic gas will be. marked by chemical land mines, filled with simulated mustard gas material, on the following basis:
2 rounds of 4.2-inch chemical mortar_____ 1 mine.
1 battery minute of artillery fire_________ 5 mines.
(2) Persistent toxic gas fired by chemical mortars will be marked by the chemical unit umpire. Umpires concerned will confirm the capabilities, including ammunition supply, of the firing units.
(3) Persistent toxic gas missions fired by artillery will be broadcast as for HE missions adding "H" after the numeral designating number of batteries firing, and marked 'as follows: . -'
(a) When chemical troops are present on the opposing side, by those troops under the direction of the senior chemical unit commander. He will be provided with an artillery fire marking radio set with operating personnel.
(b) When chemical troops are not present on the opposing side, by a special detachment provided for the purpose. The detachment commander will be provided with an artillery fire marking radio set with operating personnel.
(4) Contamination by mines will be actual. The spraying of persistent gas by combat aviation also will be actual, with the use of simulated mustard gas material.
(5) Effects of persistent toxic gas will be assessed as follows:
(a) Each individual actually contaminated by simulated mustard will be declared a casualty unless he decontaminates himself properly. Simulated mustard on shoes previously treated with impregnite will not result in casualties.
(6) Additional casualties will be assessed against personnel which remain in a contaminated area without wearing masks for a period of 1 hour or longer at the rate of 10 percent casualties per hour.
(6) Decontamination will be judged as follows:
(a) Individuals-actual, using protective ointment.
(b) Vehicles-actual. Casualties will result from contaminated vehicles only by actual contamination of the
(c) Weapons-actual. Same as for vehicles.
(d) Areas-actual, using simulated decontaminating agent to represent bleaching material. One pound of agent mixed with earth or sand will decontaminate 1 square yard of area.
e. Nonpersistent Gas. (1) Nonpersistent toxic gas fired by 4.2-inch chemical mortars will be represented by a black and white flag placed in the impact area. Attention will be drawn to the flag by one or more improvised explosives simulating exploding shells. Only concentrations of at least two platoons firing for 2 minutes (320 rounds) will be marked. Such a concentration will be considered lethal within 100 yards of the flag and for 10 minutes under average climatic conditions.
(2) Nonpersistent toxic gas fired by chemical mortars will be marked by the chemical unit umpire. Umpires concerned will verify the capabilities, including ammunition supply, of the firing units.
(3) Effects of nonpersistent toxic gas will be assessed at 10 percent of casualties among troops unmasked for 1 minute within 100 yards of the black and white flag.
34. BLANK AMMUNITION, a. The use of blank ammunition at maneuvers
promotes realism and facilitates decisions. Also it is helpful in accustoming
young soldiers to the sounds of battle.
b. Caliber .30 blank ammunition, if available, will be used freely for ground fire, especially with machine guns (par. 13c). Blank ammunition will not be fired toward personnel at less than 20 yards.
c. No blank ammunition will be fired against airplanes, since the supply is inadequate for the purpose.
35. COUNTERBATTERY INTELLIGENCE. Absence of actual firing by artillery
affects counterbattery intelligence adversely. The following procedures will
be used when practicable:
a. Each artillery firing battery will fire four lime bombs with each concentration, one at a safe distance in front of each piece. The smoke is visible to the opposing observation, and the blast marks are visible in air photographs. Blast marks may not be removed nor covered during the firing of the concentration. At night each artillery firing battery will flash the lights of a truck in the direction of the enemy for 2 seconds for each volley or salvo fired.
b. Field artillery observation battalions will set off charges of TNT near friendly batteries for the benefit of opposing observation units. An officer of the observation battalion will be responsible for safety.
c. The azimuth direction of hostile artillery fire may be secured from fire markers marking the fire.
36. MOTOR-VEHICLE LIGHTS, a. Whether, when, and where lights of motor
vehicles will be used at night is a command decision. Operations without lights
usually are practicable, subject to appropriate arrangements with local civil
authorities, and add much to the realism of maneuvers.
b. Umpires and observers will conform to restrictions imposed upon troops (par. 6b).
37. PRISONERS. WEAPONS, AND VEHICLES CAPURED OR RULED OUT OF ACTION, a.
Opposing forces should not come into physical contact (par. 4).
b. Prisoners may be declared in connection with infantry action (par. llc(2) ), Also, units or individuals may be cut off by maneuver, and the action may be such that in reality they would be either captured or destroyed. In this case, umpires will declare such units or individuals prisoners and the capturing side will handle them as such. Prisoners will be processed after interrogation to an enclosure established by the capturing side (FM 100-10).
c. Except as noted in e and f below, weapons and their crews and vehicles, including vehicles carrying class I supplies, are subject to capture and will be processed with their personnel as prisoners of war by the capturing side. Captured radios will be silenced.
d. Weapons and their crews and vehicles, with their personnel, ruled out of action will be dispatched immediatelv to a prisoner of war enclosure and held there for the period fixed beforehand by the director. Umpires may dispatch such destroyed equipment to the enclosure of either side so as to interfere least with the tactical situation.
e. Evacuation and surgical hospitals, clearing stations, collecting stations, aid stations, and ambulances which may be captured by either side will be returned to parent units by umpires without delay.
f. Depots, supply points, railheads, truckheads, distributing points, dumps, and kitchens which may be captured by either side will be made inactive by the umpires for 6 hours.
g. Prisoners and captured vehicles will be exchanged daily under supervision of the director.
h. Cargoes of vehicles processed with prisoners will remain with the vehicles. Transfer to other vehicles is prohibited.
i. Prisoners taken from mounted units will not be separated from their animals.
j. Prisoners will be allowed to retain their individual weapons.
38. ARTIFICIAL CASUALTIES, a. Artificial casualties will be provided
for the training of medical personnel by tagging a suitable number of men in
each unit engaged actively. Such casualties will be assessed periodically during
each day of combat and tagged on the spot by unit umpires, using tags furnished
by medical umpires. It is of no consequence that the. number of casualties correspond
with the number assessed as losses by unit umpires.
b. Artificial casualties will not be evacuated ordinarily beyond the division clearing stations. As soon as they are processed there, they should be returned to collecting stations promptly by means of ambulances.
c. Actual casualties will not be tagged as artificial casualties.
39. DIRECTOR HEADQUARTERS, a. Ordinarily it should be practicable to
operate the director's headquarters (par. 3) with not more than the tabular
staff of the tactical unit which he commands. If additional personnel is required,
it should be obtained, so far as practicable, from sources other than participating
b. Umpires at headquarters of large units should be unnecessary. Reports of operations can and should be made through normal tactical channels to director headquarters as required. Additional details can be obtained readily by liaison officers sent out periodically from director headquarters.
c. A reserve pool of unit, fire, and bridge umpires at director or subordinate headquarters may be advisable in order to meet abnormal, temporary, and unforeseen needs and to provide reliefs if necessary.
d. Observers and correspondents (par. 8) are received, supplied, and directed by director headquarters. Paragraph 6b is applicable to them as well as to umpires.
e. Commanders are authorized to use green flags and white helmet bands or shoulder loops (par. 8d) for motor couriers, in sending important and urgent reports or other dispatches to director headquarters, when such action necessitates a passage of opposing lines. This authority will be exercised only in the case of dispatches which cannot be handled by wire, radio, or TWX, or which are so urgent that they cannot be held properly for dispatch by scheduled messenger service, motor, or airplane. Such motor couriers will be enlisted men only and will be dispatched by the most direct routes between the two headquarters.
40. UMPIRES, a. The following personnel is suitable
and adequate ordinarily:
|Enlisted men (1)||Transportation (1)|
|Infantry battalion.||6 (2)||6 NCO's; 2 cfr; 8 fo. (4)||Umpire - 2 vehicles.|
|Field artillery battalion||1||1 rad; 1 cfr; 1 fo.||Umpire - 1 truck. (5)|
|Field artillery supervisor||1 (6)||1 NCO; 1 rad; 1 cfr.||Umpire - 1 truck. (5)|
|Engineer lettered company||1||1 NCO; 1 fo||Unit.|
|Engineer ponton company||1||1 NCO; 1 fo||Unit.|
|Horse cavalry rifle troop||2||1 NCO; 2 fo||Unit.|
|Mechanized cavalry troop||4||4 NCO's; 4 fo||Unit.|
|Antiaircraft battalion||1||1 NCO; 1 fo (8)||Unit.|
|Antiaircraft firing battery||1||1 NCO; 1 fo||Unit.|
|Antitank platoon||1||or 1 NCO||Unit.|
|Armored element (9)||1||or 1 NCO||Unit.|
|Artillery fire (10)||1||1 NCO; 1 rad; 2 cfr; 2 fo.||Umpire - 2 trucks. (5)|
|Division||4 (11)||4 cfr (12)||Unit.|
|Parachute battalion||13 (13)||5 NCO's; 13 fo.||Unit.|
|Air (14)||1||Unit. (15)|
|Company or detachment (separate). (16)||1||As required||Unit.|
|Chemical battalion or company, each.||1||1 NCO; 1 pvt; 1 cfr.||Umpire - 1 vehicle.|
b. In certain cases, supervising umpires are necessary and advisable (pars. 45-48).
(1) Abbreviations: NCO-noncommissioned officer; rad-radio operator; cfr-chauffeur ; fo-nag orderly.
(2) Umpire-supplied by director headquarters ; unit-supplied by unit
to which the umpire is assigned.
(3) 1 battalion ; 1 eacli rifle compa.ny ; 1 heavy weapons company; 1 supernumerary.
(4) 1 battalion ; 1 heavy weapons company ; 2 each rifle company.
(5) 1 vehicular radio.
(6) For each division and higher headquarters.
(7) Mounts. "
(8) Additional personnel and transportation required if provided with vehicular radio for air-ground communication.
(9) Single vehicle or small unit.
(10) 2 per infantry regiment (par. 48).
(11) 1 QM, 1 Ord, 1 Med, 1 Sig.
(12) 1 additional lineman for signal umpire.
(13) 1 chief umpire, 3 company umpires. 9 platoon umpires.
(14) Minimum of 1 each per squadron, group, airdrome, and major headquarters.
(15) 1 airplane for each air umpire. Umpires may fly as passengers in multiplace airplanes.
(16) Including infantry cannon company.
41. GENERAL, a. An umpire as such has neither comand nor instructional
functions (par. 5).
b. An umpire should avoid disclosing to troops information obtained through umpire activities and which the troops should seek with their own means. He should conform to restrictions concerning lights, cover, camouflage, and the like (pars. 6b, 31b).
c. Umpires restrain movement of troops in the degree necessary to prevent physical contact of opposing forces and permit proper decisions, but they do not order move- ment. So far as umpires are concerned, movement is either permitted or not permitted; but if permitted, it is not obligatory. Movement is cither ordered by commanders or forced by the enemy (par. 4).
d. Umpires will familiarize themselves with terrain restrictions. While compliance with such restrictions is a responsibility of command, umpires will assist in this connection by timely advice. In case a restriction actually is violated, the unit umpire concerned will report the circumstances to the director as soon as possible.
e. Contact occurring between opposing forces beyond the limits of the maneuver area will be treated by umpires as a meeting in a defile.
f. Violations of the provisions of this manual or orders for the conduct of a particular maneuver will be reported by umpires to director headquarters through the ordinary command channels, except that serious infractions which are likely to affect the outcome of the maneuver will be reported directly by the most rapid means of communication available.
g. All umpires will follow the state of ammunition supply and cause fire to be suspended when the supply is exhausted.
h. The play of ammunition supply and resupply will be realistic. No assumptions as to quantities, types, and transportation will be made.
42. INFANTRY RIFLE OR PARACHUTE BATTALION UMPIRE. a. The senior umpire
assigned to an infantry rifle or parachute battalion is in charge of all umpire
personnel and equipment with the battalion.
b. He disposes the umpires so as best to meet anticipated developments and equalize the burden of umpiring. Ordinarily it is advisable that there be an umpire with each rifle company.
c. He may remain with the battalion commander as a general procedure, but supervises the company umpires and participates in umpiring during active periods.
43. FIELD ARTILLERY BATTALION UMPIRE, a. An artillery battalion umpire
reports the fire of each battery (pars. 29b and e), if it is of 1 or more minutes'
b. He reminds the battalion commander that, when batteries fire on their own initiative, such fires must be reported to the battalion commander, otherwise, the fires will not be marked.
c. He acts as a fire umpire (pars. 7b, 29, and 48) for targets in his area.
d. When a battery is subjected to correctly placed counterbattery fire, he suspends its fire (par. 15b).
e. So far as practicable, he notes whether fires are delivered properly. In case the fires do not simulate service. conditions in all essential details or are not well prepared technically, he will omit broadcasting them. The following indications will be taken as a guide:
(1) OBSERVED FIRES, (a) By single battery. Broadcast if target is under observation by an air or ground observer and a reasonable adjustment, where necessary, is made.
(b) By two or more batteries. Broadcast if conditions in (a) above are fulfilled, and if the batteries have been tied together by adequate survey, or by registration if observed fire chart is used, and laid by common and accurate means. If the foregoing conditions are not fulfilled, broadcast the fire of only the adjusting battery.
(2) TRANSFERS OF FIRE. Broadcast if the following questions can be answered in the affirmative. Has the check point been located accurately, preferably by two independent means? Can the observer see and identify the check point? Is fire delivered within 3 hours of registration? Have batteries been laid by common and accurate means if data from registration of one battery are used by another battery? Is vertical control employed? Is the charge used the one employed in the registration?
(3) METRO OR, MAP DATA. Broadcast if the following questions can be answered in the affirmative. Is the metro message used less than 4 hours old? Has direction been obtained by survey into hostile area or by previous registration on known point? Has scale of photomap been determined by survey, preferably in direction of fire? Is vertical control employed? Has a velocity error or correction in the powder lot used been determined?
f. In order to insure that ammunition supply (par. 41g) is played realistically and that expenditures are in proportion to the effect credited by umpires, he informs the battalion commander, after each fire is broadcast, how much ammunition should be charged as expended, on the following basis for all fires:
(1) FOR OBSERVED FIRES (During fire for effect).
At the maximum rate of fire prescribed for short bursts.
This rate for various calibers follows:
|Caliber||Rate per gun or howitzer per minute|
|75-rnm, 76-mm or 3-inch
8-inch or 240-mm
(2) FOR TRANSFERS OF FIRE. Double the amount for observed fires.
(3) FOR METRO OR MAP DATA. Triple the amount for observed fires.
(4) DURING ADJUSTMENT. Sufficient rounds which in his estimation are necessary to make a reasonable adjustment of a minimum of 6 rounds.
(5) Battalion umpires will follow the state of ammunition supply, and cause fire to be suspended when the supply is exhausted.
(6) When tear gas is used refer to par. 33c (3).
44. COMPANY (TROOP) UMPIRE, a. Decisions reached by company umpires
of opposing units in contact determine the progress of a maneuver. If decisions
are sound, the maneuver will be realistic and successful. If decisions are ill-considered
and unsound, situations and outcomes will be false and lessons derived erroneous.
b. A company umpire posts himself so as best to observe the action of the company. Ordinarily he is with the leading element of the company, whether it be a patrol or a combat formation. He remains habitually with the company, except when conferring with other umpires in reaching a decision, during which period the company should be halted by white flags.
c. His basic method of control is by flags (par. 11). He avoids giving oral instructions in connection with his decisions, for they do not reach ail elements. However, certain explanations may be necessary occasionally.
d. Whenever the situation as it affects his unit becomes obscure to him in any way-due to either own or opposing force-he causes white flags to be displayed at once, halting the action. Similarly, when white flags are displayed with the opposing unit, he displays them with his unit. The display of white flags necessarily is a frequent and indispensable requisite of sound and informed umpiring.
e. The following arm signals are convenient for use by umpires in communicating with their flag orderlies:
(1) Both arms extended vertically upward-white flags.
(2) One arm extended horizontally toward either one force or the other-action resumed. One force may advance in the direction indicated; the other force must withdraw correspondingly. Red flags with the advancing force; blue flags with the withdrawing force.
(3) Both arms extended laterally in opposite directions - action resumed, but neither force may advance. Red flags along both fronts.
f. Flags must be. placed so as to be visible to the troops. Opposing lines of blue and red-or red and red-flags should be separated sufficiently to avoid confusion as to the force for wliich they are intended.
g. Blue and red control flags arc used when opposing forces (except armored elements, pars. 9 and 45c) approach physical contact. They are discontinued when physical contact no longer is likely. However, the handling of flags must not be permitted to reveal a withdrawal.
h. Umpires should impress upon company commanders that all elements of the company halt in place and cease firing when white flags are displayed in front of the company. When red flags are displayed with the unit opposing the company, the company may not advance toward such flags, but is free to maneuver around them or change its dispositions otherwise. During contact, if troops see no flags in their front, they do not advance but seek a vantage point from which flags can be seen. An advance may be made only against blue flags.
i. The procedure indicated above is applicable in general to night operations. Company umpires should be well forward, in order to anticipate contact and make decisions promptly. During contact, it may be necessary to illuminate control flags by flashlights, supplemented on occasions by oral decisions to units immediately involved. When night operations reach a stage where umpiring is ineffective, umpires on their own initiative will stop the action by displaying red flags with both sides (par. llf). Such provisions will not apply to minor actions such as patrolling, where it is practicable for umpires to accompany the opposing elements closely. Rotation of umpires for night duty is advisable, in order to permit rest and sleep.
j. If contact is made and there is but one umpire present, he will ascertain the situation of both forces, make a decision, and communicate it in the most practicable manner. If no umpire is present, the troops will be halted short of physical contact by their commanders, each of whom will send for an umpire.
45. TANK UMPIRE, a. Umpires for tanks and other armored vehicles (par.
22a) must be provided in numbers such that every contact with the opposing force,
even if by a single vehicle, will be umpired.
b. A tank umpire accompanies the leading vehicle of a formation.
c. He assesses losses of armored vehicles, and of opposing personnel and antitank guns when umpires assigned to opposing units are 'not- present.
d. If opposing armored elements meet, they will be permitted to maneuver freely until the intentions of the commanders are disclosed and the results of fire and maneuver are apparent. Both forces then are halted by white flags, and decisions made in accordance with paragraphs 24g and h.
e. Armored elements obey the white control flag, regardless of whether displayed by their own or another umpire. They disregard blue and red flags, except after dark as provided in paragraph llf. They are free to move unless and until halted by the white flag. After being halted, they are free to move again when the white flag disappears, unless ruled out of action.
f. It is advisable usually to have supervising tank umpires to instruct and supervise unit umpires. One for each column, combat team, or regiment is appropriate.
46. ANTIAIRCRAFT UMPIRE, a. A battery umpire determines and reports
airplane losses resulting from fire of the battery to which assigned (par. 25).
Also he asssesses losses to antiaircraft weapons of the battery when employed
as antitank weapons (par. 23). He keeps the battery commander informed of airplane
losses accredited to the battery.
b. A supervising umpire supervises and coordinates battery umpires. A supervising umpire should be assigned to each antiaircraft defense established by two or more batteries. If a regularly detailed supervising umpire is not available for this purpose, the senior battery umpire of the batteries establishing the defense should serve as such.
c. If other batteries are defending the same objective, the battery umpire reports airplane losses by telephone, or other available means, to the senior supervising umpire. If his battery is providing a separate defense of an objective, he reports airplane losses directly to the air umpire or to director headquarters by the most rapid means of signal communication available.
d. As soon as practicable after receipt of battery umpire reports, the supervising umpire will determine the total losses to be assessed as a result of antiaircraft artillery fire of all batteries which engaged the target (par. 25f) and will transmit a consolidated report to director headquarters or to the air umpire by the most rapid means of communication available.
47. SIGNAL UMPIRE, a. At any time during maneuvers a force may use
tactically all commercial communication facilities, as well as those of its
own construction, in territory under its own or friendly control. Use of commercial
facilities is limited to service obtained by agreement with the operating company.
Under no circumstances will military personnel interfere with functioning of
b. Arrangements must be made by the signal. director with commercial communication companies prior to maneuvers so that employees concerned may be familiar with action contemplated by signal umpires. Signal umpires are furnished identification, the nature of which is known by the operating companies.
c. Communication by participants between territory held by one side and that held by the opposing side is prohibited.
d. When a force advances into territory which has been occupied by or is accessible to the enemy, it will be assumed that no communication facilities are available in that territory. The use of such facilities is prohibited unless signal construction troops are present, equipped to construct the type of facility to be used, and the required time for construction is expended (FM 101-10).
e. No open wire or cable will be interrupted except by direction of a signal umpire.
f. Commercial telephone and telegraph service may be interrupted by the signal umpire informing the head official of the telephone or telegraph office that no calls or messages chargeable to the pertinent army account will be honored prior to a specified time. This will include traffic designated as "Flash," "Blitz," or similar terms. Signal umpires will check with commercial exchanges and telegraph offices to see that service is not given to the enemy.
g. Each signal umpire should be provided with the following: Line route map of all military open-wire circuits in the rr-aneuver area; a map showing all commercial telephone exchanges in the area and the circuits connecting the exchanges; a list of commercial telegraph offices in the maneuver area; a suitable maneuver area map; an identification card; one EE-8 telephone with leads suitable for connecting to open copper wire, or a handset in lieu of the telephone; one set of climbers and safety belt; a supply of insulated, flexible wire and connecting clips or clamps which will be used to short-circuit and ground open-wire circuits; several ground rods; one tool equipment TE-33, a supply of marking tags; watch; pencil and paper.
h. Field wire lines of one force may be interrupted by the opposing force by legitimate tactical operations. Such wire will not be damaged. If removed, it will be cared for by the troops removing it in the same manner as their own
field wire. No signal equipment other than wire and vehicular radio equipment may be captured or molested.
i. When a command post or other signal installation is attacked, signal service will be discontinued for the period prescribed for other activities of the installation. If action is taken to reestablish the command post or other installation at a new location, signal equipment other than that theoretically damaged in the attack will be utilized. Restriction on the use of equipment at the old installation is removed as soon as the new one is in operation.
j. No attempt will be made to assess damage to wire lines caused by artillery fire.
k. Circuits to director headquarters will be marked. They will not be interrupted, tapped, or molested.
1. Code books and cards for which accountability exists may be destroyed when necessary to prevent capture by the enemy. Constructive or theoretical destruction will not be recognized. The certificate, of two witnesses that destruction was necessary will be presented as supporting evidence in cases requiring survey.
m. Signal umpires will maintain records of all action taken and will make such reports as may be required by the maneuver director.
48. FIRE UMPIRE, a. Realistic participation bv field artillery in maneuvers
depends greatly on correct and rapid marking of fires.
b. Fire umpires are provided on the minimum basis of two per infantry regiment participating in a maneuver (par. 40). At least one shall be available at all times in forward infantry areas for prompt marking of fires called for by artillery forward observers. Artillery battalion umpires also mark fires within their areas (par. 43).
c. A fire umpire receives broadcasts of artillery fires (par. 31), and acknowledges and marks those within his area.
d. Fire umpires may assess losses (pars. 19-24) or delays (par. 28) caused by artillery fire if no other umpire is present.
e. In large maneuvers, certain umpires usually will be needed in addition to unit umpires, as follows:
(1) SUPERVISORS. One for each division, army corps, and army to instruct, supervise, and administer artillery unit and fire umpires.
(2) Monitors are assigned by the supervisor to control the radio net and assure proper radio discipline. Long-range radio communication desirably should be maintained between director headquarters and the senior monitor of each opposing force.
f. Director headquarters arranges for the necessary maintenance of the transportation and equipment of fire umpires. All participating units are required to supply fuel and emergency repairs to fire umpires as needed. All fire marking personnel will carry two class G rations habitually.
g. In addition to individual equipment, fire marking equipment is required as follows:
White helmet band or shoulder loop-1 per in dividual.
Green flag and staff-1 per vehicle.
Red flag with white center and staff-3 per flag orderly.
Flashlight-1 per vehicle and 1 per flag orderly.
Watch-1 per vehicle and 1 per flag orderly.
Cowbell-1 per individual.
Pencil and notebook-1 per officer, noncommissioned officer, and radio operator.
Radio spare parts-as indicated by experience.
Fuel containers-as appropriate.
Time bombs or other pyrotechnics-as available and needed.
49. GENERAL, a. Maneuvers are the highest form of troop training in
peace. No matter how highly trained the troops may be, maneuvers can be successful
only when umpired effectively, and umpiring will be effective only so far as
umpires are trained.
b. Every troop unit should maintain a certain quota of trained umpire personnel, which may be used in rotation at maneuvers without interfering unduly witli unit training.
50. PROGRAM OF UMPIRE TRAINING, a. One week of well-directed instruction
is sufficient to prepare umpires to participate in small maneuvers. Large maneuvers
preferably should be umpired-in key positions at least-by officers who have
had experience in small maneuvers. Artillery fire marking umpire personnel present
a special case and require additional instruction. Four to six weeks should
suffice for them.
b. The following program is suitable for officers who have little or no umpire training. It should be modified appropriately for those with umpiring experience.
|Methods, principles, and general procedure||Conference||
|Fire power-principles and illustrative problems.||Conference||
|Losses-principles and illustrative problems.||Conference||
|Delays-principles and illustrative problems.||Conference||
|Control flags-field demonstration.||Practical||
|Action of the arms, with particular reference to umpiring problems:|
|Field maneuvers - battalion against battalion:|
|Advance to contact; reconnaissance; security; meeting engagement||Practical||
|Attack and defense; horse and mechanized cavalry in reconnaissance and counterattack||Practical||
|Attack and defense; armored vehicles in reconnaissance and attack.||Practical||
|Pursuit and withdrawal||Practical||
|Group instruction by arms||
51. APPLCATORY PROBLEMS, a. Such problems are simply those which arise
in field maneuvers, solved in the classroom where they can be discussed and
clarified. One or a few maneuvers yield an abundance of problems for the instruction
b. Problems in procedure are exemplified by questions such as the following:
(1) An antitank gun sees an armored vehicle at 400 yards moving toward the gun, but the vehicle carries a black flag. Should the gun fire against the vehicle? Why? (Par. 8b(2).)
(2) You as company umpire display the white control flag. Shortly afterward you note a support platoon of the company moving toward the flank of the company. What action do you take? (Par. 44h.)
(3) You as company umpire display red control flags along the front of your company. There are red flags opposite your company also. What movement, if any, may your company make? (Par 44h.)
(4) You as company umpire are displaying red control flags. Your company sees no flags at all in its front. May the company advance? (Par. 44h.)
(5) You as company umpire are displaying no control flags, and your company sees no flags at all in its front. May the company advance? (Par. 44h.)
(6) A caliber .30 machine gun fires against a hostile tank. Should an orange flag be displayed? If so, by whom? (Pars. 9a, 22a.)
(7) Twelve riflemen and two automatic rifles are deployed and firing on a front of 40 yards. A red flag with white center is placed 10 yards in rear of the right of the line. W^hat is the fire power of the squad within a range of 500 yards? At 800 yards? (Pars. 14c, d, 15a.)
(8) An artillery fire flag is placed so that it is partially effective on the company of which you are umpire. Who assesses the losses of your company, you or the fire umpire? (Par. 18c.)
(9) The company of which you are umpire is advancing toward the enemy in approach formation. It meets fire at about 500 yards. What is your position with respect to your company at this time? Have you any control flags displayed? What do you do, if anything, when the hostile fire is opened ? (Pars. 4, 18b, 44g.)
(10) The company of which you are umpire is marching on a road, well to the rear of a large column. Combat aviation attacks the column some distance ahead of you, and approaches your company. The company immediately takes a dispersed formation on both sides of the road, and opens fire against the airplanes as they approach. What percentage of losses do you assess? (Par. 19c.)
52. FIELD MANEUVERS. Small field maneuvers afford the director a means of verifying practically the fitness of his umpires. Two battalions or a similar force are as useful for the purpose as a larger one. A critique after each maneuver or at the end of each day is essential in order to correct faults thoroughly. Maneuvers should be varied, so that umpires will acquire confidence in their ability to handle all situations likely to be encountered.