Use of the Compass
From Essentials of Infantry Training - Eighth Edition, August, 1940
Use of Compass. Directions are generally stated in degrees of magnetic azimuth. The needle at rest points to magnetic north. The angle any line makes with the north line, measured clockwise from the north point, is the azimuth of that line. In the illustration below, you will see the soldier determining the azimuth to the object on top of the hill. From his location to the object, the Azimuth is 70°.
Orienting the map. A map is said to be oriented when the lines on it are parallel to the lines they represent on the ground. Thus, if any line which points to the north of the map, is adjusted so that it actually points north with the map laid on the ground, the map is oriented. If a line of the map actually points in the same direction as the same line on the ground, the map is oriented. See the illustration below for methods of orienting the map.
Determining Direction Without a Compass. If the soldier does not have a compass, he can still determine direction using his watch. Point the hour hand toward the sun with the watch horizontal. A line through the center of the watch passing halfway between the hour hand and 12 (in the small angle) will point south. When the scout has neither watch nor compass he can still maintain his general direction by observing the position of the sun. If the sun is hidden, he must rely on the map, or upon his notes to assist him in moving about by reference to prominent terrain features. He moust look back frequently to note landmarks, slop of ground, and directions of streams to guide him on his return. When lost, he should climb a tree or go to high ground and try to locate some familiar landmark.